As Western Europe is concerned the conviction of being sovereign and independent was shattered more recently. The data from Operation Gladio and NATO’s stay-behind armies indicates a more subtle and hidden strategy to manipulate and limit the sovereignty, with great differences from country to country. Yet a limitation of sovereignty it was. And in each case where the stay-behind network in the absence of a Soviet invasion functioned as a straitjacket for the democracies of Western Europe, Operation Gladio was the Breschnew doctrine of Washington.
The manipulation of the democracies of Western Europe by Washington and London on a level which many in the European Union still today find difficult to believe clearly violated the rule of law
Violent operations the secret war led to bloodshed. Tragically the secret warriors linked up with right-wing terrorists, a combination that led – in some countries including at least Belgium, Italy, France, Portugal, Spain, Greece and Turkey – to massacres, torture, coup d’états and other violent acts. Most of these state-sponsored terrorist operations, as the subsequent cover-ups and fake trials suggest, enjoyed the encouragement and protection of selected highly placed governmental and military officials in Europe and in the United States.
Judged from the Gladio evidence, where a lack of transparency and accountability has lead to corruption, abuse and terror, the answer is clear: The executive should be granted no secrecy and should at all times be controlled by the legislative. For a secret government, as it manifested itself in the United States and parts of Western Europe, can lead to abuse and even state terrorism.
(Just a few of the most recent tidbits on our terrorist Gladio Armies that spread blood all over Europe, Turkey and the Balkans, which, I have no doubt have been and still are more than very much alive and well, in fact were operating the right-wing Neo-Nazi gangs in the Ukraine and thus were critical in their support of the Coup and the subsequent subjugation of the Ukraine people under NATO, IMF, US/EU domination.
This has been a game the CIA/NATO/Gladio armies have been playing for 60 years and their footprint is all over the Ukraine. So you wonder why Putin distrusts America and NATO?)
- 1990-In Italy, Judge Felice Casson discovers documents on Operation Gladio in the archives of the Italian military secret service in Rome and forces Prime Minister Giulio Andreotti to confirm the existence of a secret army within the state to parliament. As Andreotti insists that Italy had not been the only country involved in the conspiracy, the secret anti-Communist stay-behind armies are discovered across Western Europe.
- 1990 In Switzerland, Colonel Herbert Alboth, a former commander of the Swiss secret stay-behind army P26, in a confidential letter to the Defence Department declares that he is willing to reveal ‘the whole truth’. Thereafter he is found in his house stabbed with his own military bayonet. The detailed parliamentary report on the Swiss secret army is presented to the public on November 17.
- 1990 In Belgium, the NATO-linked stay-behind headquarters ACC meets on October 23 and 24 under the presidency of Belgian General Van Calster, Director of the Belgian military secret service SGR.
- 1990 In Belgium, on November 5, NATO categorically denies the allegations of Prime Minister Andreotti concerning NATO’s involvement in Operation Gladio and secret unorthodox warfare in Western Europe. The next day NATO explains that the denial of the previous day had been false while refusing to answer any further questions.
- 1990 In Belgium, the parliament of the European Union (EU) sharply condemns NATO and the United States in a resolution for having manipulated European politics with the stay-behind armies. 1991 In Sweden, the media reveals that a secret stay-behind army existed in neutral Finland with an exile base in Stockholm. Finnish Defence Minister Elisabeth Rehn calls the revelations ‘a fairy tale’, adding cautiously ‘or at least an incredible story, of which I know nothing’.
- 1991 In the United States, the National Security Archive at the George Washington University in Washington files a Freedom of Information (FOIA) request concerning the secret stay-behind armies with the CIA in the interest of public information and scientific research. The CIA rejects the request with the standard reply: ‘The CIA can neither confirm nor deny the existence or non-existence of records responsive to your request.’
- 1995 In England, the London-based Imperial War Museum in the permanent exhibition ‘Secret Wars’ reveals next to a big box full of explosives that the MI6 and SAS had set up stay-behind armies across Western Europe.
- 1995 In Italy, the Senate commission headed by Senator Giovanni Pellegrino researching Operation Gladio and the assassination of former Prime Minister Aldo Moro files a FOIA request with the CIA. The CIA rejects the request and replies: ‘The CIA can neither confirm nor deny the existence or non-existence of records responsive to your request.’
- 1996 In Austria, stay-behind arms caches set up by the CIA are discovered. For the Austrian government Oliver Rathkolb of Vienna University files a FOIA request concerning the secret stay-behind armies with the CIA. The CIA rejects the request and replies: ‘The CIA can neither confirm nor deny the existence or non-existence of records responsive to your request.’
- 2001 The author asks NATO for documents on the stay-behind secret armies and specifically transcripts of the ACC and CPC meetings. Lee McClenny, head of NATO press and media service, denies that NATO had been involved with Operation Gladio and claims that neither ACC nor the CPC transcripts exist.
- 2001 The author files a FOIA request with the CIA which is rejected with the comment: ‘The CIA can neither confirm nor deny the existence or non-existence of records responsive to your request.’ The author appeals against the decision and argues that it would be unwise to ‘deprive the CIA from its voice and the possibility to take a stand in a Gladio disclosure discourse, which will take place regardless of whether the CIA decides to participate or not’. The CIA accepts the appeal and informs the author that the Agency Release Panel, dealing with appeals ‘on a first-received, first-out basis’, with a present ‘workload of approximately 315 appeals’ will reply in due course. They do not.
=NATO’s Secret Armies (Contemporary Security Studies) (Daniele Ganser)
In a way, this is surprising to me, this piece just published from the Council of Foreign Relations publication, Foreign Affairs, is the most accurate and understanding of almost all of the pabulum on the Ukraine “Crisis” I have read. Certainly so for any publication remotely as influential as FA.
It is a must read in order to get your bearings on the why of it. One can easily fill in the blanks as to the various self-interested parties outside of the Ukraine that have caused this crisis and, needless to say, one need not look very far afield for the primary culprits.
How the West Caused the Ukraine Crisis
According to the prevailing wisdom in the West, the Ukraine crisis can be blamed almost entirely on Russian aggression. Russian President Vladimir Putin, the argument goes, annexed Crimea out of a long-standing desire to resuscitate the Soviet empire, and he may eventually go after the rest of Ukraine, as well as other countries in eastern Europe. In this view, the ouster of Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych in February 2014 merely provided a pretext for Putin’s decision to order Russian forces to seize part of Ukraine.
But this account is wrong: the United States and its European allies share most of the responsibility for the crisis. The taproot of the trouble is NATO enlargement, the central element of a larger strategy to move Ukraine out of Russia’s orbit and integrate it into the West. At the same time, the EU’s expansion eastward and the West’s backing of the pro-democracy movement in Ukraine — beginning with the Orange Revolution in 2004 — were critical elements, too. Since the mid-1990s, Russian leaders have adamantly opposed NATO enlargement, and in recent years, they have made it clear that they would not stand by while their strategically important neighbor turned into a Western bastion. For Putin, the illegal overthrow of Ukraine’s democratically elected and pro-Russian president — which he rightly labeled a “coup” — was the final straw. He responded by taking Crimea, a peninsula he feared would host a NATO naval base, and working to destabilize Ukraine until it abandoned its efforts to join the West.